Kashmir Profile

Buddhism was introduced in Kashmir in about 245 BC

Ruled by independent Rajas Upto 1325

Muslim Sultans.

1325 to 1585

Mughals Rulers.

1586 to 1752

Afghan Rulers

1752 to 1819

Sikh Rulers.

1819 to 1846

Sale of Kashmir to Dogras Under Amritsar Treaty. 16 th March, 1846
Movement against repressive measures of Dogra Raja Hari Singh. 1931

Launching of All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference by Shiekh Muhammad Abudallah. 1932

National Conference. 1939
National Conference launched Quit Kashmir Movement. 1946
Partition of Indian sub-continent. 14 August, 1947

Popular revolt began against the repressive rules Of Maha Raja and an independent government Was proclaimed in the liberated territories. 24 th October, 1947

The Heaven Split

1. Pakistan and India came into existence as independent states in August, 1947. The principle of partition was specified in the plan : The all Muslim majority areas were to constitute part of Pakistan and similarly the Hindu majority areas were to go to India . Besides, the 565 princely States at that time including the State of Jammu and Kashmir were given the option either to join Pakistan or India . Such joining to either State was to be determined by the geographical contiguity and communal composition of the population. The State of Jammu and Kashmir with a 77 % Muslims majority (according to 1941 Census)should gave acceded to Pakistan.

2. The Maharaja of Kashmir entered into a stand-still agreement with the Government of Pakistan on 15 th August, 1947 and decided to continue all the arrangements that had till than existed between the Jammu and Kashmir and the British Government. It was assumed that this was the prelude to the full accession of the State to Pakistan.

3. However, the Maharaja of Kashmir took certain measures which betrayed his intention of not acceding to Pakistan . Particularly important was his order that Muslims in the State should surrender their arms, followed by the disarming of Muslims in the police and the State army. These measures resulted in an insurrection by the people of Kashmir against the Maharaja. The insurrection which started in August, 1947 gained momentum in September and on 24 th of October the Azad Kashmir Government was formally proclaimed.

4. The Maharaja of Kashmir, making this insurrection an excuse and accusing Pakistan for having organized the invasion by the Pathan tribesmen acceded the state to India on 26 th of October and asked it for military help. Indian troops were flown to Srinagar on 27 th Of October and launched an offensive against the Muslims who had refused to accept the State's accession

The so-called accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India has no legal and moral footings for the following reasons :-

  • It was contrary to wishes of the people
  • The existence of an earlier stand-still agreement created a legal bar to the ruler's capacity to alter the existing position unilaterally
  • At the time he offered accession to India , the ruler himself had fled the State and a peoples government had taken the control over large portion of the territory of the state.

The Indian acceptance of the accession of Jammu and Kashmir was conditional. The Governor-General of India while conveying acceptance of Maharaja's request wrote

" In consistence with their policy that, in the case of any state where the issue of accession has been subject of dispute, the question of accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the State, It is my government's wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders, the question of State's should be settled by a reference to the people".

Similar assurance was given by the Indian Prime Minister to the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

In 1947, India and Pakistan went to war over Kashmir . During the war, India brought the issue before the Security Council on January 1, 1948. It pleaded that Pakistan was responsible for creating disturbance in Kashmir and wanted the Security Council to ask Pakistan to with draw the tribesmen who had entered the State. The Security Council did not endorse the Indian position and in its resolution of 17 th January, 1948 appealed to the parties to improve the atmosphere and to refrain from doing anything that might aggravate the situation.

Simultaneously the Indian Government intensified its military build up and operations in Kashmir and launched a full scale offensive in order to impose military solution in Kashmir, The United Nations Commission on India and Pakistan (UNCIP) was established through Security Council resolution on 20 th January, 1948, which was reconstituted on 21 st April, 1948 through another resolution and instructed " to proceed at once to the sub-continent". The resolution provided for a plebiscite by India and Pakistan , acting in cooperation with each other and with the Commission.

Commission Action:

The United Commission on India and Pakistan arrived in the sub-continent on 7 th July, 1948 and immediately engaged in consultation with the Indian and Pakistan authorities. After undertaking the survey of the situation, the Commission adopted a resolution on 13 th August, 1948, containing the proposals for ceasefire order, truce agreement and re-affirmation of the desire for a plebiscite in Kashmir . The Commission also decided that It will appoint military observers to supervise the observance of the ceasefire order. The UNCIP resolution of 13 th August, 1948 was accepted by both India and Pakistan.

Appointment of Military Observers

On 19 the November, 1948, the Commission received an urgent communication from Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan concerning reinforcement of Indian troops in Kashmir and attacks by those troops against positions held by forces of Azad Kashmir.

After series of contact with the representative of both the governments, the NUCIP sent its final recommendations to India and Pakistan on December 11, 1948. Both the governments accepted the UNCIP proposals and recommendations of the Commission were subsequently adopted in UNCIP resolution dated 5 th January, 1949.